In a transaction, if I select results to display to the screen, I get the message
Query result with x rows discarded.
How can I view those results? Something is amiss with my query and I want to see what the values are in a temp table at a certain point.
In a transaction (or in an SQL function) only the results from the last command are returned to the user. You could write the results to a (temporary) table to inspect them later.
Or you run through your transaction interactively, executing one command after the other.